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7月
25 2012
 

七年级下册语法


   作者:丘盈盈 发表时间-17 :33:7  阅读( 256 )| 评论( 1 )

七年级下册语法


第一单元    1.定冠词the             2.专用(有)名词



第二单元    1.现在进行时态 (1).谈论现在发生的事情(2)谈论将来发生的事情

第三单元    1.指示代词this that these those  2.可数名词和不可数名词

第四单元    1.人称代词 2.形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词  3.反身代词

第五单元    情态动词(1)can 和 cannot    (2)may 和 may not  (3) must 和 must not

第六单元    1.who和whose的使用    2.one 和 ones 的使用

接下来,咱们就各个知识点来分析,它们的高频考点有哪些。

一、定冠词the重要考点:
1、定冠词the的基本用法——表示特指或上下文提到过的,或双方都知道的人或事物(2011年深圳中考第1题;2010年深圳中考第1题)
2、表示方位或西洋乐器名称的前面(2012深中期中第40题,2008深圳中考第21题)

3、用于数词、形容词最高级前面;以及对两个人进行比较时,起特指作用的比较级前。(2012深外期中第45题)
     e.g. He is the taller of the two boys.

4、用于比较级前:用于“the+比较级,the+比较级”结构中表示“越……就越……”。(2012深外期中第44题)
     e.g. The sooner we operate now the safer. 越早动手术越安全。

5、用于表示类别:用于“the+某些形容词或过去分词”中表示一类人

6、用于“单位词”(hour, day, month, year, dozen, gallon, ton等)前表示标准,相当于汉语的“按”“论”“每”等。

二、现在进行时重要考点:
1、基本考点——表现在正在进行或目前一段时间内正在进行,说话此刻未必在发生的动作。(此考点虽简单,但考查频率很高)

2、常与“来来去去开始呆带死”(come, arrive, go, leave, start, stay, take, die )等动词用进行时表将来。(2012年深中期中第54题,2012年高级中学期中第35题)

3、与always, frequently等副词连用,表示说话者赞赏或厌恶、批评等感情色彩。 (2012年深外期中第37题)
     e.g. You are always talking in my class.

4、一般现在时和现在进行时的区别:
        一般现在时:表示经常性、习惯性的动作或状态。主语具备的性格、能力、特征和爱好。
                  
       现在进行时:表示现在或现阶段正在进行的动作。

三、指示代词(this, that, these, those)重要考点:
1、打电话等不知道对方身份、性别时用指示代词。 (2012年深中期中第42题)

2、比较句型中,常用that, those,指代“同词不同物”的东西.  (2012年深中期中第44题)
     e.g. The weather in Beijing is colder than that in Shenzhen.

3、it, that, one的区别。 (2012年高级中学期中第32题)
          it:特指,指代“同名同物
         that:特指。相当于“the +名词”, 常用于比较结构中,代替前面提到的名词,以避免重复。
         one 泛指。相当于“a + 名词”,指前文提到的某一类东西中的另一个。


 


 


 


 


 


实义动词的时态   (以work为例)


1、一般现在:  work/works     助动词:do/does


             三个时空--过去/现在/将来


             中文义:一般来讲、平时、现在  (感情/心理)
            


    He goes to the park everyday.


-- Does he go to the park everyday?


  He does not go to the park everyday.


  Where does he go everyday?


They often go to the park. 


-- Do they often go to the park?


  They do not often go to the park.


He does his job well.


-- Does he do his job well?


      He does not do his job well.


 


一般现在和过去时:翻译以下句子


1) He gets up at 6, but he got up at 7 today.


2) A: Do you love him?    


B: I loved him.


 


2、过去 worked     助动词:did  


中文义:过去、曾经、那个时候


He worked late yesterday.


-- Did he work late yesterday?


      He didn''t work late yesterday.


   比较:Why do you talk at class? 和 Why did you talk at class?


 


3、将来: will work     助动词:will


中文义:一定会、将要、以后


He will become a good doctor.    我认为他日后/将来


 


4、现在正在进行:am/is/are + working     助动词:am/is/are


                 中文义:现在、此时此刻、正在


翻译:We are listening. Why are you talking? Why aren''t you listening?


We are listening. He is not listening.


比较:Do you drive or walk?  -- Are you driving or walking?


运用:What are you doing? I''m not eating a candy.


                           (这里不能用I don''t eat a candy. )


Dad: What are you doing?


Son: I’m not eating a candy.


              Dad: Open your month.


              Son: Sorry, papa.


5、现在完成:has/have worked (过去分词)  助动词:has /have


中文义:到现在为止、已经


比较:现在完成 / 过去时


He learned English for 2 years.


He has learned English for 2 years.


现在完成 / 一般现在


He never smokes.  (这是他的习惯)


He has never smoked.  (不保证以后。当着我们的面没抽过烟)


         考试:一个时间段;强调“完成”


          I have worked for the company for 3 years.


          If you have finished your homework, you may go out for fun.


 


一个句子中至少要有一个动词。如果没有实义动词,就必须拿虚义动词凑数be。


Be:是、成为、凑数动词
1)书在桌子上。 The book is on the table.


2)文件很重要。 The paper is important.


3)学校在工厂的附近。 The school is near the factory.


4)这些花好漂亮。   The flowers are beautiful.


 


翻译下列句子:


1)She was beautiful, but she is old and ugly.


2)He is rich, but he was poor.


3)There is a river nearby. It was clear清澈的, but it is muddy and dirty now.


4)He is a student, but he will be a manager.


5)He is a teacher, and he has been a teacher for 10 years.


6)  Where are you?  ----- Where have you been?


Where were you last night?


Where will you be this time tomorrow?


 


虚义动词be的时态:


1)一般现在  am/is/are    助动词:am/is/are


2)过去   was/were               was/were


3)将来   will be                 will


4)现在正在进行 x 没有       被动: am/is/are + being


5)现在完成  has/have been         has/have


 


作句子首先找----动词


森林里住着小动物。Little animals lived in the forest.


他从树上跳下来。  He jumped from/off the tree.


他沿着河岸走。    He walked along the bank.


他把书放在桌子上。He put the book on the table.


 


被动: be + 过去分词
Encourage   鼓励  be encouraged  被鼓励


beat         击败  be beaten   被击败


 


Build  vt.盖/起/建筑  过去/过去分词:built / built


1)明年那里要盖房子。
The workers will build a house there.


A house be built


A house will be built by the workers there next year.


2)去年那里盖了房子。


The workers built a house there last year. 


A house be built


A house was built there last year.


When was the house built there?


3)那里已经盖了房子。


The workers have built a house there. 


A house be built


A house has been built there.


4)那里正在盖房子。


The workers are building a house there.


A house be built


A house is being built there.


   Is a house being built there?


 


1) If we see the earth in the space, the earth is small.


= If the earth is seen in the space, the earth is small.


= Seen in the space, the earth is small.


2) The boy was beaten up by his father.


3) He was killed with a knife.   (省略by someone 被某个人)


4) Recognize  vt.认出    be recognized 被认出


Someone recognized her yesterday.


= She was recognized yesterday.


 


引入:


情态动词:帮助动词的词  can  能够  should/must/may


疑问句/否定句can                   


He can swim. 


Can he swim?


He can not swim.


What can he do? /what can you see?


情态动词的被动:情态动词+be +过去分词


1) You may borrow my dictionary.


= My dictionary may be borrowed.


2) You should encourage the boy.


= The boy should be encouraged.


附:时态表:


1. 时态(实义) work


   1)一般现在时


   2)过去时 (5类)————————————— 过去时


3)现在完成时                             — 过去完成时


               *现在完成进行时        — 过去完成进行时


   4)现在正在进行时                         — 过去正在进行时


   5)将来时(3类)—— 将来时              — 过去将来时


                      — 将来正在进行时


—  将来完成时


 


2. 时态(虚义)be


   1)一般现在 am, is, are


   2)过去 (5类)    —————————— --  过去 was, were


3)现在完成时 have/has been             --  过去完成 had been


               *现在完成进行 (无)    --  过去完成进行 (无)


   4)现在正在进行时 am/is/are + being       --  过去正在进行was/were + being


--  过去将来 would be                                        


   


   5)将来时(3类)—— 将来  will be      


                      — 将来正在进行 (基本无)


—  将来完成 will have been


实义动词  work


一般现在


过去   -------- 过去


将来          过去将来  would work   2. 婉转


现在正在进行  过去正在  was/were working


现在完成      过去完成  had worked (过去分词)  过去的过去


现在完成进行  过去完成进行  had been working


Has/have been working


 


将来---------- 将来          will work


            将来正在进行  will be working


            将来完成      will have worked ( 过去分词)


 


Since 1:30, we have been studying.   一直


I am tired. I have been studying all day today.


I was tired yesterday. I had been studying all day.


 


He said:” I will do it.”


-- He said he would do it.


He said:” I am doing my homework.”


-- He said he was doing his homework.


He said: “ I did it. “


-- He said he had done it.


 


When she entered the room, the children were sleeping.


When they got to the station, the train had left.


Before he went to the US, he had learned English for 3 years.


 


I will do it. 我一定会去做 / I would do it. 我可能会去做


 


Open the windows.


Open the windows, please.


Will you please open the windows?


Would you please open the windows.


 


He has finished my homework.


Before his mother came back, he had finished.


 


By 到….时候为止    完成 


By now, we have finished 12 units.


By the end of last month, we had finished 12 units.


By the end of next month, we will have finished 12 unit.


 


 


将来---------- 将来          will work


            将来正在进行  will be working


            将来完成      will have worked ( 过去分词)


                          By/before


I will watch TV.


I will be watching TV.


 


时态2 / 虚义 be


一般现在


过去   -------- 过去


将来          过去将来  would be   2. 婉转


现在正在进行  过去正在  was/were being


现在完成      过去完成  had been (过去分词)  过去的过去


 


当我去年回家的时候,那儿正在建很多新房。


When I went back to my hometown, many new houses were being built there.


                               They were building many new houses there.


当我去年回家的时候,那儿已经建了很多新房。


When I went back to my hometown, many new houses had been built.


                                They had built many new houses.


 


Be


将来---------- 将来          will be


            将来完成      will have been ( 过去分词)


 


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    这样的学习态度,想不进步都难!你已经养成了用别人玩的时间来提前学习,真是难能可贵呀!如果大家都能像你这样多好啊!
     
     刘红(hliu_118t)  2012-07-27 09:01:17   58.251.120.37

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